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History Of Soccer Navigation menu VideoThe History of Football in 10 Minutes
A sport similar to football called soccer in the United States and elsewhere was played years ago in Japan.
Chinese text from 50 BC mentions football-type games between teams from Japan and China. A text dating from AD confirms that football was played in Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan.
Ancient Greeks and Romans also played a game that resembled football — although the Greeks permitted carrying of the ball.
Olympic games in ancient Rome featured a minute football game with twenty-seven men on a side. How the sport spread from the East to Europe is not clear but England became the home of modern football.
At first the game had a bad reputation among English royalty — possibly because of the noise the fans made — by whose insistence the government passed laws against it.
In King Edward III banned football because of its excessive violence and for military reasons playing took time away from archery practice the game had become too popular to be curtailed.
Laws failed to slow the popularity of football and by it received official sanction in England. The games were still ruff and noisy, with players hardly ever leaving the field without broken bones or even being spiked.
Various forms of what is now known as "folk football" were played. Some of the British games pitted two massive and rather mob-like teams against one another.
These could stretch from one end of a town to the other, with both teams trying to get the ball into their opponent's goal.
It's said that the games were often low scoring. Standard rules were not enforced, so almost anything was allowed and play often became quite violent.
Shrove Tuesday often saw the biggest games of the year and most matches were a big social event. As the country industrialized, the space limitations of the cities and less leisure time for workers saw a decline in folk football.
This was partially attributed to legal concerns over the violence, as well. Versions of folk football were also played in Germany, Italy, France, and other European countries.
The codification of soccer began in the public schools of Britain at the beginning of the 19th century. Within the private school system "football" was a game in which the hands were used during periods of play and grappling allowed, but otherwise, the modern shape of soccer was being formed.
Two barless goals were placed at each end, goalkeepers and tactics were introduced, and high tackles outlawed.
Yet, the rules varied greatly: some resembled the play of rugby, while others preferred kicking and dribbling. Space restraints did cool the game down from its violent origins, however.
The rules and regulations continued to evolve in Britain and by the s dedicated soccer clubs at schools began to emerge. Again, even in its semi-organized form, the rules stretched from rugby to modern soccer.
Players often tripped each other and kicking an opponent in the shins was only frowned upon when he was being held.
Over the years, schools began playing matches against one another. During this time players were still allowed to use their hands and were only permitted to pass the ball backward, as in rugby.
In , the "Cambridge Rules" were established at Cambridge University. While this allowed students to move up in the ranks as they graduated and adult football clubs became more common, players could continue to handle the ball.
There was still quite some way to go in producing the modern game of soccer we see today. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December Committee member J.
Alcock, said: "The Cambridge Rules appear to be the most desirable for the Association to adopt. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published by the FA.
However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The two contentious FA rules were as follows:.
A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.
If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.
At the fifth meeting a motion was proposed that these two rules be removed from the FA rules. Most of the delegates supported this suggestion but F.
Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected strongly. He said, "hacking is the true football". The motion was carried nonetheless and — at the final meeting — Campbell withdrew his club from the FA.
After the final meeting on 8 December the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as association football.
The game also came to be called "soccer" as a shortening of "Association" around the same time as Rugby football, colloquially referred to as "rugger", was developing as the main ball carrying version of English football, and "soccer" remains a common descriptor in countries with other prominent football codes today.
These first FA laws contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games e.
Rugby Union and Australian rules football : for instance, if a player first touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a " free kick " at goal, from that point and fifteen yards [approximately 14 metres] in front of the goal line; and a player could make a catch and claim a " mark ", which entitled him to a free kick from or behind that point see Laws 7 and 8 respectively.
The laws of the game agreed on by the FA members stipulated a maximum length and breadth for the pitch, the procedure for kicking off, and definition of terms, including goal, throw in, offside.
Passing the ball by hand was still permitted provided the ball was caught " fairly or on the first bounce ". Despite the specifications of footwear having no " tough nails, iron plates and gutta percha " there were no specific rule on number of players, penalties, foul play or the shape of the ball; captains of the participating teams were expected to agree on these things prior to the match.
The laws laid down by the FA had an immediate effect, with Sheffield F. As more teams joined the code in the s, the sport veered away from its origins in public schools, came to be played with round balls and by teams that had settled on 11 players each.
The rule eliminating passing of the ball forwards by making all players in front of the ball ' offside ' much like in rugby today was dropped.
A Sheffield against London game in had allowed the FA to observe how the rules were affecting the game; subsequently handling of the ball was abolished except for one player on each team, the goalkeeper.
A red tape was added between the two goalposts to indicate the top of the goal, and a national competition was proposed. On 20 July , C. Alcock , a gentleman from Sunderland and a former pupil of Harrow School proposed that " a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the [Football] Association ",  the idea that gave birth to the competition.
Despite the Royal Engineers being the heavy favourites, one of their players sustained a broken collar bone early on and since substitutions had not yet been introduced, the Engineers played a man down for the rest of the match which they eventually lost 1—0.
The FA Cup was a success and within a few years all of the clubs in England wanted to take part.
To do so they had to accept the FA code, which led to the quick spread of a universal set of rules. These rules are the basis of which all association football rules today stem from.
Queens Park withdrew in the semi-finals of the cup which due to the format being played that year meant that all the challengers to Wanderers' trophy played a competition for the right to throw down the gauntlet and play the holders, hence the full name FA Challenge Cup because they had trouble raising travel expenses to pay for the constant trips to England, this directly led to the formation of the Scottish FA.
However, despite this, Queens Park continued to participate in the FA Cup, reaching the final twice, before the Scottish FA banned Scottish clubs from entering in That year, fifteen clubs entered the competition.
Queen's Park reached the semi-finals without playing due to withdrawals, but then after a goalless draw with Wanderers, were forced to withdraw as before the advent of penalties and extra time , they could not afford to come back to London for the replay.
Wanderers won the cup outright in after what remains to this day one of only two hat tricks of wins ever. However they returned the cup to the FA in order for the competition to continue, on the condition that no other club could win the cup outright ever again.
C was the main force between meetings held in London and Manchester involving 12 football clubs, with an eye to a league competition.
These 12 clubs would later become the Football League 's 12 founder members. The meetings were held in London, the main concern was that an early exit in the knockout format of the FA Cup could leave clubs with no matches for almost a year, and if that happened, not only could they suffer heavy financial losses, but fans often didn't stick around for that long without a game, and instead went to other teams.
Matters were finalised on 17 April in Manchester. The competition guaranteed fixtures and members for all of its member clubs.
The clubs were split equally among North and Midlands teams. It excluded Southern teams, who were still strictly amateur. A rival English league called the Football Alliance operated from to In it was decided to formally merge the two leagues, and so the Football League Second Division was formed, consisting mostly of Football Alliance clubs.
The first international game was played in Scotland on 30 November Charles Alcock, who was elected to secretary of the FA at the age of 28, devised the idea of an international competition, inaugurating an annual Scotland - England fixture.
In and he placed advertisements in Edinburgh and Glasgow newspapers, requesting players for an international between the two countries.
The only response that he received stated: "devotees of the "association" rules will find no foemen worthy of their steel in Scotland"  For this reason the and matches were composed entirely of Scots living in England.
Notably, however, Smith of the Queen's Park football club took part in most of the and international matches.
As early as , Alcock was adamant that these matches were open to every Scotsman [Alcock's italics] whether his lines were cast North or South of the Tweed and that if in the face of the invitations publicly given through the columns of leading journals of Scotland the representative eleven consisted chiefly of Anglo-Scotians To call the team London Scotchmen contributes nothing.
The match was, as announced, to all intents and purposes between England and Scotland". In the challenge was eventually taken up by Queens Park FC.
The 2nd game between the two sides, on the 8 March , ended 4—2 in favour of England, the Scots then went on to win the next game 2—1.
The fourth game ended in a 2—2 draw after which the Scots enjoyed a 3-game winning streak. When football was gaining popularity during the s and s professionals were banned in England and Scotland.
Then in the s, soon after Wanderers disbanded, in the north of England, teams started hiring players known as 'professors of football', who were often professionals from Scotland who were referred to at the time as the ' Scotch Professors '.
This was the first time professionalism got into football. The clubs in working class areas, especially in Northern England and Scotland, wanted professional football in order to afford playing football besides working.
Several clubs were accused of employing professionals. The northern clubs made of lower class paid players started to gain momentum over the amateur 'Gentleman Southerners'.
The first northern club to reach the FA Cup final was Blackburn Rovers in , where they lost to Old Etonians, who were the last amateur team to win the trophy.
During the summer of , there was pressure put on the Football Association to accept professionalism in English football, culminating in a special meeting on 20 July, after which it was announced that it was " in the interests of Association Football, to legalise the employment of professional football players, but only under certain restrictions ".
Clubs were allowed to pay players provided that they had either been born or had lived for two years within a six-mile radius of the ground.
There were also rules preventing professional players playing for more than one club in a season, without obtaining special permission, and all professional players had to be registered with the F.
Though English clubs employed professionals, the Scottish Football Association continued to forbid the practice. Consequently, many Scottish players migrated southward.
At first the FA put residential restrictions in place to prevent this, but these were abandoned by One of the teams to benefit from the move of Scottish players to England, who were nicknamed the Scotch Professors , was Sunderland A.
The club went professional in , and the club recruited a number of Scotsmen the same year, their first internationally capped players.
The wealthy miner Samuel Tyzack, who alongside and shipbuilder Robert Turnbull funded the now professional "team of all talents," often pretended to be a priest while scouting for players in Scotland, as Sunderland's recruitment policy in Scotland enraged many Scottish fans.
In fact, the whole Sunderland lineup in the World Championship was made from entirely Scottish players. Another team to benefit from the Scotch Professors was Preston North End , the first English team to win the Championship and Cup " double ", which did so with a majority of their team being made up of Scottish players.
The Scottish FA lifted its ban on professionalism in , whereupon players were registered as professionals. Early English women's teams, such as the Dick, Kerr's Ladies from Preston, were so popular that their matches raised money for charities.
The first recorded women's football match, on 23 March , was held in England between a northern and southern team.
The fundraising matches continued, in spite of objections. A maximum wage was placed on players, players challenged this and came close to strike action in , but it was not to be for another fifty years before the maximum wage was abolished.